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APA Citation Style (6th ed.): Examples by Type

This guide has been created to provide you with quick access to resources on the topic of APA Style (Sixth Edition)


Examples by Type

In text Citation


(References should be double-spaced with a hanging indent)

APA Reference
Books - Basic Format Author, A. (date). Title of works: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.

One author – in-text reference Placement

Note: There are two main ways to use intext references. Firstly, to focus on the information from your source – ‘information prominent’. Secondly, to focus on the author – ‘author prominent’.

Information prominent’ (the author’s name is within parentheses):

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that…


‘Author prominent’ (the author’s name is outside the parentheses):

Cochrane (2007) concluded that…

Cochrane, A. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell.


Section 6.11

One author – when 40 or more words are quoted

Begin quoting the material on a new line, indent it 5 spaces (use the Indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented), and include specific page number/s.

Omit the quotation marks.

Use double spacing for both your text and the indented quote.

Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published.

Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006), for example, points out that:

There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. (p. 184)

Finkelman, A. W. (2006). Leadership and management in nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.


Section 6.03

Two authors

When considering the Howard Government’s Indigenous health expenditure, Palmer and Short (2010, p. 63) maintain that…

Palmer, G. R., & Short, S. D. (2010). Health care and public policy: An Australian analysis (4th ed.). South Yarra, VIC: Palgrave Macmillan.

Section 6.11

Three to five authors

For the first in-text citation, list all the authors’ family names, then use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ for subsequent entries.

In a recent study (Seeley, VanPutte, Regan, & Russo, 2011, p. 143) concluded that…

Subsequent in-text reference/s:

(Seeley et al., 2011, p. 143).

Seeley, R., VanPutte, C., Regan, J., & Russo, A. (2011). Seeley’s anatomy & physiology. New York, NY: McGraw-H ill.

Section 6.11

Six to seven authors

For all in-text citations, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ All authors are included in the Reference List.

The Russian Revolution may never have succeeded if there hadn’t already been widespread discontent among the Russian populace (Bulliet et al., 2005, p. 768).

Bulliet, R. W., Crossley, P. K., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Section 6.11

Several works by the same author in the same year

Arrange alphabetically by title in the Reference List. Place lowercase letters (“a”, “b”, “c”, etc.) immediately after the year.

Leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (Fullan, 1996a, 1996b) and this conference…

Fullan, M. (1996a). Leadership for change. In International handbook for educational leadership and     administration. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fullan, M. (1996b). The new meaning of educational change. London, England: Cassell.

Section 6.16

Several authors, different years, referred to collectively in your work

List sources alphabetically by family name in the in-text citation in the order in which they appear in the Reference List.

Separate each reference with a semicolon.

The cyclical process (Carr & Kemmis, 1986; Dick, 2000; Kemmis & McTaggart, 1988) suggests…

Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research. London, England: Falmer Press.

Dick, B. (2000). A beginner’s guide to action research. Retrieved from

Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (Eds.).(1988). The action research planner (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Deakin University.

Section 6.16

E-Book – online book

If the URL leads to information about how to obtain the book, use “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from”.

If there is a DOI (digital object identifier), include it instead of the ‘Retrieved from’ statement.

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to many electronic documents.

We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann, Greenstein, & David, 2004) that meant we could…

Niemann, S., Greenstein, D., & David, D. (2004). Helping children who are deaf: Family and community support for children who do not hear well. Retrieved from


Section 7.02

Examples 19-22, 24, 29, 30 

Chapter in edited book

A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards, 1997) included reference to…

Richards, K. C. (1997). Views on globalization. In H. L. Vivaldi (Ed.), Australia in a global world (pp. 29-43).North Ryde, Australia: Century.

Section 7.02

Examples 24- 26

Brochure – author is also publisher The security of personal information is addressed in the TransACT brochure (TransACT, n.d.)

TransACT. (n.d.). Guide to equipment and service [Brochure]. Canberra, Australia: Author.


In discussing best practice, Zairi (1999) identified...

Zairi, M. (Ed.). (1999). Best practice: Process innovation management. Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Section 6.27

Examples 21-27, 29

No date of publication

Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne, n.d.) and for this reason…

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. London, England: Tower Publishing.

Section 6.28

Examples 20, 30, 47

Second or later edition

Peters (2001, p. 6) argued that “...”

Peters, T. (2001). The elements of counselling (2nd ed.). Brisbane, Australia: Macmillan.

Examples 28, 30

Multi-volume work

Inge, Duke and Bryer (1978, p. 27) claim that there is much to learn about these writers which results in…

Inge, M. T., Duke, M., & Bryer, J. R. (Eds.). (1978). Black American writers: Bibliographical essays (Vols. 1-2).  New York, NY: St. Martins.

Example 23

Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – print

Include information about editions, volume numbers and page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.

According to one definition of “bivalence” (VandenBos, 2007, p. 123)…

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Section 7.2

Examples   27- 28

Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – online

Include information about editions, specific volume numbers or page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.

A psychological overview of ADHD (Arcus, 2001)…

Arcus, D. (2001). Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology.Retrieved from

Note: If retrieved from a database, do a Web search for the home page of the publisher of the encyclopaedia and use the URL in the reference.

Section 7.2

Examples 27- 28

Permission to use from University of Sydney, University Library

Example by Type In text Citation


(References should be double-spaced with a hanging indent)

APA Reference

Journal Electronic -  Basic Format

Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number

(issue  number), page range. Retrieved from

Journal with DOI - Basic Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal,

         volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000


Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue)

If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, include the issue number in parenthesis immediately after the volume number in the Reference List.

In an earlier article, it was proposed (Jackson, 2007)…

Jackson, A. (2007). New approaches to drug therapy. Psychology Today and Tomorrow, 27(1), 54-59.

Section 7.01


Journal article with two authors – continuous paging throughout a volume.

If the journal volume page numbers run continuously throughout the year, regardless of issue number, do not include the issue number in your Reference List entry.

Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest article…

Kramer, E., & Bloggs, T. (2002). On quality in art and art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 40, 218-231.

Section 7.01


Journal article with three to five authors

For the first in-text citation, list all the authors’ family names, then use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ for subsequent entries.

A recent study to investigate the effects of an organizational stress management program on employees (Elo, Ervasti, Kuosma, & Mattila, 2008) concluded that…

Subsequent in-text citation(s):

(Elo et al., 2008, p. 11)

Elo, A., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10-23.

Section 7.02


Journal article with six to seven authors

For all in-text citations, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ All authors are included in the Reference List.

A simple ALMA is described in a recent study (Restouin et al., 2009).

Restouin, A., Aresta, S., Prébet, T., Borg, J., Badache, A., & Collette, Y. (2009). A simplified, 96-well–adapted, ATP luminescence–based motility assay.  BioTechniques, 47, 871–875.

Section 7.02

Journal article with eight or more authors

For all in-text citations, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ In the Reference List, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipsis points (...), and add the last author’s name.

Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide (Steel et al., 2010, p. 523).

Steel, J., Youssef, M., Pfeifer, R., Ramirez, J. M., Probst, C., Sellei, R., ... Pape, H. C. (2010). Health-related quality of life in patients with multiple injuries and traumatic brain injury 10+ years post injury. Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 69(3), 523-531. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e90c24

Section 7.01

Example 2

Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number

Wychick and Thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing…

Wychick, J., & Thompson, L. (2005, November 24). Fallen for a scam lately? AustraliaToday, 54-60.

Section 7.02

Journal article retrieved from a database – with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to articles in many databases. Always include the DOI if one is provided (usually in the article’s full-text, abstract or database record). If there is a DOI, no other retrieval information is necessary.

A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort, 2009) discovered …

Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 1162-1174. doi: 10.1037/a0016372

Section 7.02

Examples 1, 2, 5, 9, 12, 13

Journal article retrieved from a database – without a DOI

- If there is no DOI, do a Web search to locate the URL of the journal’s home page & include it in the Reference List. The journal URL can sometimes be found in the database record or in the full text view of the article.

- If the online article is ONLY available from a database (e.g. for discontinued journals where the journal home page doesn’t exist), include the entry page URL of the database where it was found. Give the database name if not in the URL.

The effects of climate change on agriculture are studied by Ramalho, Da Silva and Dias (2009)…


"Primary care is one area marked for improvement" (Purtilo, 1995, p. 111).

Example using URL of journal home page:

Ramalho, M., Da Silva, G., & Dias, L. (2009). Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 9(2), 189-195. Retrieved from

Example using URL of database (where there is no journal home page):

Purtilo, R. (1995). Managed care: Ethical issues for the rehabilitation professions. Trends in Health Care, Law and Ethics, 10, 105-118. Retrieved from

Section 7.01

Examples 3

Newspaper article – with an author

The notion of a Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (Waterford, 2007).

Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets it wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.

Section 7.02

Examples 10 -11

Newspaper article retrieved from a database

Do a Web search to locate the URL of the newspaper’s home page & include it in the Reference List.

In an attempt to save the tiger, Darby (2002) provided…

Darby, A. (2002, August 20). Rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from

Section 7.02

Example 11

Article in an online newsletter

Australia’s casualty rate was almost 65 per cent - the highest in the British Empire (“Australians and the Western Front”, 2009)

Australians and the Western Front. (2009, November). Ozculture newsletter. Retrieved from

Section 7.01

Permission to use from the University of Sydney, University Library

Example by Type In text Citation


(References should be double-spaced with a hanging indent)

APA Reference

Internet/Online -

Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of web page. Retrieved from <web page URL>

Blog post

List the author’s name as it is used in the posting (including nicknames).

For a blog comment, use ‘web log comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ and include the exact title (including ‘Re:’ if used)

The plight of the flapper skate was recently highlighted (Keim, 2009)…

Keim, B. (2009, November 18). ID error leaves fish at edge of extinction [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Section 7.11

Examples 76-77

Discussion group, list, etc. – online

There are strongly held views about knowledge management (Weidner, 2007) and from personal experience…

Weidner, D. (2007, June 11). KM reducing in popularity [Discussion list message]. Retrieved from

Section 7.11

Examples 74

Email – NEVER cite addresses without permission of the owner of the address

Ms. Coleman (personal communication, July 11, 2007) provided details in an email and we acted on that information.

Not included in Reference List. Treat as personal communication and cite in-text only.

Section 6.20

Pg. 179

Facebook update

List the author’s name as written (including nicknames).

$52 million will be provided to deploy Australian civilian troops (Rudd, 2009)

Rudd, K. (2009, October 24). Australian civilian corps to help in crises [Facebook update]. Retrieved from

Facebook page or note

When sharing a recipe, an ingredient is often left out on purpose (Ende, 2016).

Ende, R. [Rein]. (2016, October 8). Traditional Estonian cooking and eating [Facebook page]. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from  
Document - no author/ no date ("Egyptian cobra", n.d.)

Egyptian cobra. (n.d.). Retrieved from Egyptian-Cobra---------/3252


Organization or Government

(American Kennel Club, 1994, para. 2)

American Kennel Club. (1994, March 31). AKC meet the breeds: Labrador Retriever. Retrieved from


"In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River" ("Canada", n.d., para. 6).

Canada. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 11, 2015 from

Section 6.15

.Example by Type

In text Citation


(References should be double-spaced with a hanging indent)

APA Reference

 Films -  Basic Format

Producer, A.A. (Producer), & Director, B.B (Director). (Year). Title of motion    

        picture  [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.


(Colson & Boyle, 2008)


Colson, C. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog millionaire [DVD]. United States: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. 

Section 7.07

Example 49

DVD (Organization as author)


(American Psychological Association, 2000)    

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from 

Section 7.07

Example 49

Video Recording

(Koenig & Huycke, 1985)

Koenig, W. (Producer), & Huycke, S. (Director). (1985). If you want a girl like me [Video recording]. Montreal, Canada: National Film Board of Canada.

Section 7.07

Online Video


(Crawford, 1995)



Crawford, B. (Producer/Director). (1995). Interpersonal process recall: The recall process - individual recall (#IPR D-1) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Section 7.07


Online Videos - YouTube

The person who posted the video is put in the author position. Include both the real name and the screen name when available.  If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets.

(Apsolon, 2011)




Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from



Section 7.07




Online Videos - YouTube (no screen name)

(Bellofolletti, 2009)

Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Possible ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from    v+Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related

Section 7.07


Audio Podcast


(Van Nuys, 2007)


Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Section 7.07


Music - Basic Format

Composer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from composer]. On

        Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, cassette, podcast, etc]. Location: Label. (Recording date

        if different from song copyright date)


(Mitchell, 1974)

Mitchell, J. (1974). Jericho. On Miles of Aisles [CD]. New York, NY: Asylum.

Section 7.07

Music - Recording by Artist Other Than Composer

(Mitchell, 1974)

Mitchell, J. (1974). Jericho [Recorded by K.D. Lang]. On Hymns from the 49th Parallel [CD]. Toronto, ON: Nonesuch. (2004)

Section 7.07


Single Episode from a Television Series - Basic Format

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode

        [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series

        title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.

Single Episode from a Television Series

(Halley & Johnson, 2000)

Halley, J. (Writer), & Johnson, F. (Director). (2000). Air traffic control [Television series episode]. In J. Lieberman [Producer], The news hour. New York, NY: American Broadcast Company.

Section 7.07

Television Advertisement (Beyondblue, 2009) Beyondblue (Producer). (2009, November 29). Beyondblue: Anxiety [Television advertisement]. Canberra, Australia, WIN TV Section 7.07

Television Program - Broadcast

Always check the television station's website and use the transcript, if one is available for direct quotes.

(Kimball, 2009) Kimball, C. (Presenter). (2009, September 4). Stateline [Television broadcast]. Canberra, Australia; ABC TV Section 7.07
Television Program - Transcript (McLaughlin, 2004)

McLaughlin, M. (Presenter). (2004, November 7). Cyclone Tracy. In Rewind [Television program] [Transcript]. Sydney, Australia: ABC TV. Retrieved from

Section 7.07

Map, Chart, Figure, Table, or Graph - Basic Format

 Author. (Date). Title [format]. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher. 

Map - Single Map - Print

Cite each of these as you would for a book with the type of entry or format in square brackets immediately after the title

(Bujak & Donohoe, 1980)

Bujak, J.P., & Donohoe, H.V. (1980). Geological highway map of Nova Scotia [Geology map]. 1:633,600. Halifax, NS: Atlantic Geoscience Society.

Section 7.07


Map - Single Map in a Series - Print


(Natural Resources Canada, 1999)


Natural Resources Canada. Centre for Topographic Information. (1999). Wolfe Island, Canada, United States of America [Topographic map]. Edition 9. 1:50,000. NTS sheet 31 C/1. Ottawa, ON: Author.

Section 7.07

Map - Online

(Natural Resources Canada, 2011)

Natural Resources Canada. (Cartographer). (2011). Significant earthquakes of the 20th century. [Intensity map]. Retrieved from

Section 7.07

Further Examples



Work of Art

(Thomson, 1915)

Thomson, T. (1915). Fire-swept hills [Painting]. The Hudson's Bay Company Gallery, Toronto, ON.

Section 7.07

Photograph - Print Book

(Clark, 2002)

Clark, E. (Photographer). (2002). Bicycle champion. In B. London, J. Upton, K. Kobre & B. Brill, Photography, (7th ed.), (p. 262). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Section 7.07

Photograph - Online

(Vernon, 2009)

Vernon, T. (Photographer). (2009). Magnolia tree, Middleton [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Section 7.07

Image - Online Source


(Nishinaga, 2007)

Nishinaga, S. (2007). Small intestine blood vessels [image]. Retrieved from

Section 7.07

PowerPoint Presentation (Roberts, 2007) Roberts, J. (2007, March 17). Cultural traditions of Ukrainian Canadians. PowerPoint presentation at a HIST 2209 lecture at Douglas College, New Westminster, BC. Section 7.07
PowerPoint Presentation - Online (Hertzman, 2008) Hertzman, C. (2008). Aboriginal ECD in BC [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from Section 7.07
Example by Type In text Citation


(References should be double-spaced with a hanging indent)

APA Reference
Government Document - Print - Basic Format

Author. (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle of document (Report No.

        if provided). Place of publication: Department.

Government Document - Online - Basic Format

Author. (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle of document. (Report No. if provided).        

        Retrieved from URL     

Government department - Print

Spell out the full name of the body each time it is cited in-text, unless it is long and has a familiar/easily understood abbreviation. In the latter case, give the full name with the abbreviation for the first in-text citation. Use the abbreviation for  subsequent citations.

The need for guidelines to manage and use multiple channels to deliver e-government services (Department of Finance and Administration [DOFA], 2006) presents Australian Government agencies with ...

Subsequent in-text citation(s): DOFA (2006) identified ...                                    


Department of Finance and Administration. (2006). Delivering Australian Government services: Managing multiple channels. Canberra, Australia: Author.

Section 7.03

Report by individual author with identifying number - Print

Includes report numbers, catalogue numbers, etc.

"Today only 3% of Canadians are directly occupied in the business of farming, but the agri-food sector employs about 15% of the population" (Coote & Gregorich, 2000, p. 2).                                   

Coote, D.R., & Gregorich, L.R. (2000). The health of our water: Toward sustainable agriculture in Canada (Catalogue No. A15-2020/2000E). Ottawa, ON: Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.                                              

Section 7.03

Report by individual author with identifying number - Online

Government document - Online

For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author:

"By 2010, BC will consistently be one of the three highest spending provinces in terms of provincial support for basic and applied research" (Plant, 2007, p. 3).

Plant, P. G. (2007). Access and excellence: The campus 2020 plan for British Columbia's post-secondary education system (Report No. C2007-960088-3). Retrieved from the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development website:


Section 7.03

Statistics Canada - Print

The 220,000 women enrolled full time in a community college program, comprise 54% of the full-time students in these facilities (Statistics Canada, 2006).

Statistics Canada. Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division. (2006). Women in Canada, 2005: A gender-based statistical report. (Catalogue No. 89-503-XIE). Ottawa, ON: Author.

Section 7.03

Statistics Canada - Online

According to Statistics Canada (2006), Canada's visible minority population increased by 27.2% between 2001 and 2006.

Statistics Canada. (2006). Canada's ethnocutural mosaic, 2006 census: Findings. (Catalogue No. 97-562-XWE2006001). Retrieved from Section 7.03
Statistics Canada - CANSIM (Statistics Canada, 2011)

Statistics Canada. (2011). CANSIM Table 111-0012, Family characteristics, by family type, age of older adult, and family income. Retrieved from

Section 7.03

Parliamentary Document - Online

"On 20 September 2011, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance adopted a motion to undertake a study of current tax incentives for charitable donations" (Canada. Parliament, 2011, para. 2).

Canada: Parliament. House of Commons. Standing Committee on Finance. (2011). Tax Incentives for Charitable Giving in Canada. Report of the Standing Committee on Finance, 41st Parliament, 1st Session. Retrieved from

Section 7.03
Nova Scotia - Report - Online "Principals currently are required to spend too much time performing administrative tasks" (Nova Scotia. Department of Education, 2007, p. 7).

Nova Scotia. Department of Education. (2007, November). Premier's forum on student achievement: Summary report. Retrieved from

Section 7.03

Permission to use by Douglas College Library

Citing Case Law

Traditional Citation

The traditional form of citation requires these elements:

     *  the case name, or "style of cause" (in italics)       
     *  the year of the decision (in parentheses, followed by a comma)
     *  the volume number
      * the abbreviated title of the reporter (e.g. D.L.R. for Dominion Law
     *  the series number, if included (in parentheses)
     *  the starting page number
      * the abbreviated name of the court, if not included in the
        reporter name (in parentheses)

ExampleR. v. Latimer (1995), 126 D.L.R. (4th) 203 (Sask. C.A.)

In the next example, the name of the court is not required because the name of the reporter, the Supreme Court Reports (S.C.R.), includes this information.

ExampleR. v. Chaisson, [2006] 1 S.C.R. 415.

Neutral Citation

Many courts assign a neutral citation when a decision has been rendered.  It is independent of any printed reporter or online database.  When citing an electronic version of a decision, such as through Quicklaw or another database, it is not necessary to include the name of the database or online source.

If a judgement is published in a reporter, list the neutral citation first, followed by the printed reporter.  List at least one parallel citation, whenever possible.  The following example cites the case reported online through the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) first, followed by the report of the case published in the printed Dominion Law Reports (D.L.R.).

Example:   R. v. Latimer, 2001 SCC 1, 193 D.L.R. (4th) 577.

Neutral citations include these elements:

     * the "style of cause" or case name (in italics, followed by a
     * the year of the decision
     * the court identifier (e.g. - BCSC for British Columbia
       Supreme Court)
     * the decision number

ExampleR. v. Coulson, 2003 BCSC 144

Citing Legislation


Statutes are published at the end of each parliamentary session.  Every so often, all of the sessional volumes are pulled together, along with all existing statutes, into one complete set of statutes in alphabetical order, called the Revised Statutes.

The Statutes of Canada were last revised in 1985.  Statutes in effect at that time will thus be cited as R.S.C. 1985, for the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985.  The chapter number of the statute includes the initial letter of the name of the act.

ExamplesCriminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C - 46.      
                  Privacy Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. P- 21.

Federal statutes passed after 1985 are cited as S.C. for the Statutes of Canada. In this case, chapters are indicated by numbers only, with no initial letters.

ExamplesYouth Criminal Justice Act, S.C. 2002. c. 1. 
                  Nunavut Act, S.C. 1993, c. 28.

If citing a specific section or subsection of an act, add the section/subsection numbers at the end of the citation.

ExampleYouth Criminal Justice Act, S.C. 2002. c. 1, s. 38(2).

The Statutes of British Columbia were last revised in 1996. Statutes in effect at that time are cited as R.S.B.C. 1996, for the Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1996

ExampleMotor Vehicle Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 318.      

BC provincial statutes passed after 1996 are cited as S.B.C. for the Statutes of British Columbia.

ExampleParental Responsibility Act, S.B.C. 2001, c. 45.   


When citing bills, include the bill number, the title of the bill, the session of Parliament, the number of the Parliament, and the year.   

              Bill C-27, An Act to Amend the
              Canadian Human Rights Act,
              2nd Session, 39th Parliament, 2007.

When citing provincial bills, include the jurisdiction.

              Bill 16, Police Amendment Act, 1997,
              2nd Session, 36th Parliament, British
              Columbia, 1997.


 Federal regulations were last consolidated in 1978.  Regulations in effect in 1978 are cited to the Consolidated Regulations of Canada (C.R.C.).

     Air Cushion
     Vehicle Regulations
     C.R.C., c. 4

After 1978, federal regulations are cited by the year and number.

    Trade-marks Regulations
    (1996), SOR/96-195.

SOR stands for Statutory Orders and Regulations, 96 is the year and 195 is the number of the regulation.

Provincial regulations are also cited by year and number, but include the jurisdiction.  In the following example, 74 is the year and 181 is the number of the regulation.

ExampleB.C. Reg. 181/74. 

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