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APA Citation Style (6th ed.): In text Citations

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APA    American Psychological Association, Publication Manual, 6th ed. Playlist

In text Citations

"Cite the work of those individuals who ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work (American Psychological Association (APA), 2010, p. 169).

A direct quotation is defined as, "reproduc[ing] word for word material directly quoted from another author's work" (APA, 2010, p. 170). A direct quote is the exact words of the original author without any changes to the text unless specified (APA, 2010).

A direct quote under 40 words should be:

  • Enclosed in double quotation marks
  • Period comes after the in-text citation at the end of the quotation

An in-text citation should include - author, date, and page number.


"Primary care is one area marked for improvement" (Purtilo, 1995, p. 111).

A direct quote of 40 words or more is displayed in a free-standing block (APA, 2010).

  • Omit the quotations marks
  • Start a block quotation on a new line
  • Indent the block quote about one half inch from the left margin
  • Double space the entire quote
  • Period comes before the in-text citation at the end of the quotation


Miele (1993) found the following:

The "placebo effect," which has been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.

Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [emphasis added], even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies

(e.g., Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 278)


"Cite the work of those individuals who ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work (American Psychological Association (APA), 2010, p. 169).

An indirect quotation (paraphrase) is when you express an idea or concept from another author’s work in your own words. Using an indirect quote involves taking information from the original source and paraphrasing or putting it into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must also credit the original source (APA, 2010).

A indirect quote does not require double quotation marks.

An in text citation should include:

  • Author
  • Date
  • Page (Not required; however, consult with your instructor for clarification).

In text citations for indirect quotes (generally) appear in the following format: (Author’s Last Name, Year of Publication).

          Example: (Austen, 1813).

Common knowledge refers to information you can reasonably expect the general public to know such as widespread facts, dates or historical events.

Common knowledge does not need to be cited; however, a good practice is to speak with your instructor or librarian when you are unsure if information is common knowledge.

A personal communication may be a private letter, memos, some electronic communications (e.g., email or messages from non-archived discussions groups or electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews, telephone conversations and the like.  Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list.

You may wish to cite material provided by your instructor, guest speakers, or other classroom material such as lecture notes or PowerPoint presentations.  If the material is posted somewhere online, cite the resource directly.  If the material is only available from the instructor or presenter, treat the resource as a personal communication.  

Classroom notes should be treated as a personal communication, as they are non-retrievable.

Cite personal communications in text only.  Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as an exact a date as possible. American Psychological Association (APA), 2010, p. 179

Example: (K. L. Brennan, personal communication, July 2, 2010). 

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