A direct quotation is defined as, "reproduc[ing] word for word material directly quoted from another author's work" (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 170). A direct quote is the exact words of the original author without any changes to the text unless specified (American Psychological Association, 2010).
The following guidelines may help further your understanding of when to provide an in text citation:
An indirect quotation (paraphrase) is when you express an idea or concept from another author’s work in your own words. Using an indirect quote involves taking information from the original source and paraphrasing or putting it into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must also credit the original source (American Psychological Association, 2010).
The following guidelines may help you when citing indirect (paraphrase) quotations.
Common knowledge refers to information you can reasonably expect the general public to know such as widespread facts, dates or historical events.
Common knowledge does not need to be cited; however, a good practice is to speak with your instructor when you are unsure if information is common knowledge.
Examples of Common Knowledge:
The following are some practices that may assist you in your research experience:
For more information on effective research practices, please visit Library Services Research Guide