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Fake News, Misinformation & Propaganda: Legitimate Sources

This guide provides quick access to relevant resources on Fake News, Misinformation & Propaganda

Bias Definied

Bias is a tendency to believe that some people, ideas, etc., are better than others, which often results in treating some people unfairly. 

Explicit bias refers to attitudes and beliefs (positive or negative) that we consciously or deliberately hold and express about a person or group. Explicit and implicit biases can sometimes contradict each other. 

Implicit bias includes attitudes and beliefs (positive or negative) about other people, ideas, issues, or institutions that occur outside of our conscious awareness and control, which affect our opinions and behavior. Everyone has implicit biases—even people who try to remain objective (e.g., judges and journalists)—that they have developed over a lifetime. However, people can work to combat and change these biases.

Confirmation bias, or the selective collection of evidence, is our subconscious tendency to seek and interpret information and other evidence in ways that affirm our existing beliefs, ideas, expectations, and/or hypotheses. Therefore, confirmation bias is both affected by and feeds our implicit biases. It can be most entrenched around beliefs and ideas that we are strongly attached to or that provoke a strong emotional response.

(Facing History and Ourselves, 2016)

Here's How Fake News Works

Many fake news peddlers didn’t care if Trump won or lost the election. They only wanted to pocket money. But the consequences of what they did shook the world. This is how it happened.

Tanz, J. (2017, January 14). Here's how fake news works (and how the Internet can stop it) [Video]. Retrieved from

Pennut Butter, Jelly & Racism

What is implicit bias? Saleem Reshamwala unscrews the lid on the unfair effects of our subconscious.

Reshamwala, S. (2017). Peanut butter, jelly and racism [Video]. Retrieved from