A direct quotation is defined as, "reproduc[ing] word for word material directly quoted from another author's work" (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 170). A direct quote is the exact words of the original author without any changes to the text unless specified (American Psychological Association, 2010).
The following guidelines may help further your understanding of when to provide an in text citation:
An indirect quotation (paraphrase) is when you express an idea or concept from another author’s work in your own words. Using an indirect quote involves taking information from the original source and paraphrasing or putting it into your own words. When you paraphrase, you must also credit the original source (American Psychological Association, 2010).
The following guidelines may help you when citing indirect (paraphrase) quotations.
Common knowledge refers to information you can reasonably expect the general public to know such as widespread facts, dates or historical events.
Common knowledge does not need to be cited; however, a good practice is to speak with your instructor when you are unsure if information is common knowledge.
The following are some practices that may assist you in your research experience:
In order for a research paper to be complete, it must be accompanied by a bibliography. A bibliography is a list of sources that have been consulted/used for the paper. The bibliography needs to be formatted according to an established style of documentation. Consult with your instructor to determine which style to use.
Compiling a bibliography and correctly citing sources ensures honesty, integrity and completes the research paper.
Common Bibliographic Styles
Conducting research involves compiling a bibliography. It is recommended to maintain a "working bibliography" of the sources that are used. If you keep track of the information sources consulted at the early stages of the research process, developing a final bibliography will not be time consuming. Ensure all the bibliographic information is recorded about the source (author, title, subtitle, place of publication, publisher, year of publication and issue information - if a journal).
Consult with Campus Library staff for more assistance.