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APA Style (Seventh edition): Reference Examples by Type

This guide will assist students in learning APA style and applying it when writing and formatting papers and other course assignments.


The APA Style, 7th edition was published in 2020, superceding the 6th edition. NSCC Libraries will provide instruction and support on both the 6th and 7th editions of the APA bibliographic style until June 30,2021. After this date, the APA 6th ed subject guide, and corresponding print handout, will be removed.

One to two authors

For a work with one or two authors, include the author(s) in every citation.  

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that...

Cochrane, A. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. Blackwell.

Three or more authors

Include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation including the first citation.   

In a recent study (Seeley et al., 2011, p. 143) concluded that…

Seeley, R., VanPutte, C., Regan, J., & Russo, A. (2011). Seeley’s anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill.

Several works by the same author in the same year

Arrange alphabetically by title in the Reference List. Place lowercase letters (“a”, “b”, “c”, etc.) immediately after the year.   

Leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (Fullan, 1996a, 1996b) and this conference…

Fullan, M. (1996a). Leadership for change. In International handbook for educational leadership and administration.  

          Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fullan, M. (1996b). The new meaning of educational change. Cassell.

eBook with DOI or URL

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to many electronic documents.   

We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann et al., 2004) that meant we could…

Niemann, S., Greenstein, D., & David, D. (2004). Helping children who are deaf: Family and community support for

          children who do not hear well.

eBook without DOI or URL from Most Academic Research Databases or Print Version

Burgess (2019), noted that ...

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Chapter in edited book

A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards, 1997) included reference to…

Richards, K. C. (1997). Views on globalization. In H. L. Vivaldi (Ed.), Australia in a global world (pp. 29-43). Century.

No date of publication

Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne, n.d.) and for this reason…   

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower Publishing.

Second or later edition

Include information about editions, volume numbers and page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.

Peters (2001, p. 6) argued that “...”

Peters, T. (2001). The elements of counselling (2nd ed.). Macmillan.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia – print

According to one definition of “bivalence" (VandenBos, 2007, p. 123) …

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia – online

A psychological overview of ADHD (Arcus, 2001) …

Arcus, D. (2001). Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of   

          Psychology. Gale Group.

Journals/ Newspapers

Journal article with one or two authors

Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest  article …

Kramer, E., & Bloggs, T. (2002). On quality in art and art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 40, 218-231.

Journal article with three or more authors

A recent study to investigate the effects of an organizational stress management program on employees (Elo et al., 2008) concluded that …

Elo, A., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a

          municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10-23.

Journal article – with a DOI

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to articles. Include the DOI if one is provided.

A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort, 2009) discovered …

Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:

          Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 1162-1174. https://10.1037/a0016372

Journal article – without a DOI

If there is no DOI, use the URL of the article. Do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. 

The effects of climate change on agriculture are studied by Ramalho et al. (2009).   

Ramalho, M., Da Silva, G., & Dias, L. (2009). Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breeding and

          Applied Biotechnology, 9(2), 189-195.

Newspaper article

The notion of a Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (Waterford, 2007).

Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets it wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.

Blog post

(Klymkowsky, 2018)

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

Webpages / Websites

Webpage with no author/ no date     

(Egyptian cobra, n.d.)     

Egyptian cobra. (n.d.). Egyptian-Cobra---------/3252

Website Organization or Government

(American Kennel Club, 1994, para. 2)

American Kennel Club. (1994, March 31). AKC meet the breeds: Labrador Retriever.



Use the abbreviation para. to indicate the specific location on a webpage.

"In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River" ("Canada", n.d., para. 6).

Canada. (n.d.). In Wikipedia.

Webpage on a news website

(Bologna, 2018)    

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.

Social Media

Facebook post   

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities.

          Check out these 5 Actions Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook.

Facebook page or note     

(Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved

          July 22, 2019, from


(White, 2018)

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet].

Audio Visual

YouTube or Other Streaming Video

The person/group who uploaded the video is put in the author position. Include both the real name and the screen name when available.  If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets.

(Apsolon, 2011)

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video]. YouTube.

TED Talk Video

When located on TED's website

(Giertz, 2018)    

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences.


TED Talk Video

When located on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here TED) as the author.

(TED, 2012)     

TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube.

Series Episode or Webisode

(Barris, 2017)

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J.

          Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishbourne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore

Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

Music Album

Include an URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

(Bach, 1721/2010)     

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St

          Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Single Song or Track

Include an URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

(Beyonce, 2016)     

Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.


(Vedantam, 2015-present)     

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. ttps://



(Cable, 2013)

Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service.

Art Work in a Museum or a Museum Website

(Thomson, 1915)

Thomson, T. (1915). Fire-swept hills [Painting]. The Hudson's Bay Company Gallery, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Clip Art or Stock Image

(GDJ, 2018)  

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.


Photograph - Online

(McCurry, 1985)

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. 


PowerPoint or Lecture Notes on Learning Management System (e.g. Brightspace)

If the slides you are citing come from a classroom website or learning management system (e.g., Brightspace), and you are writing for an audience that has access to the resource, (e.g., instructor or classmates) provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring a login).  

Lowe, H. (2020, October 2). The marketing plan [Video]. Brightspace.


Government Documents

Electronic versions: Do not include publication information if the address is of the website of the publishing government agency / department ministry.

Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; italicize the title. Include document numbers in parentheses

Government Report by Group Author (electronic)   

(Public Health Agency of Canada, 2005)

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2005). Make every mother and child count: Report on maternal and child health in

          Canada (Catalogue No. H -13/2005).

Government Report by Individual Author (electronic)

(Plant, 2007)

Plant, P. G. (2007). Access and excellence: The campus 2020 plan for British Columbia’s postsecondary education

          system (Report No. C2007-960088-3). British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market


Government Report by Individual Author (print)     

(Plant, 2007)     

Plant, P. G. (2007). Access and excellence: The campus 2020 plan for British Columbia’s postsecondary education

          system (Report No. C2007-960088-3). Ministry of Advanced Education.

Statistics Canada     

(Statistics Canada, 2012)

Statistics Canada. (2012). Age (131) and sex (3) for the population of Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions,

          census subdivisions and dissemination areas, 2011 Census. (2011 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations

          Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 97-550-XWE2006002).


Debates / Hansard

(British Columbia, 2011)     

British Columbia, Official Report of the Debates of the Legislative Assembly (Hansard), Vol. 27, No. 8, (November 14,

          2011) at 8687 (Stilwell).

Legal Documents


Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year).

Canadian statutes should include jurisdiction immediately after the Volume. Session or supplement, chapter, and pinpoint locations should be substituted for the section symbol (§) and section number.


Bill / Resolution Number, Legislative Session, Volume Source page (year) (enacted).

Canadian bills have official titles which should be included at the start of the citation, followed by a comma. The pinpoint location is substituted for volume, source and page number.

  • Treated as works with no author.
  • In-text citations should include the first few words of the reference followed by the year of publication.
  • Should be cited with the official or popular title of the legislation, and the year it was passed.


Bill C-26 (2005) had numerous effects on ...

Freedom of association is guaranteed under section 2(d) (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982).

Case Law

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).

In Canadian cases, the Court and Date may be located in the neutral citation. The reporter should be considered the Source. If the year of the reporter needs to be included, place it in square brackets before the volume.

(R. v. Latimer, 2001)