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APA Style (Seventh edition): Reference Examples by Type

This guide will assist students in learning APA style and applying it when writing and formatting papers and other course assignments.

The APA Reference Formula

APA references are all based on the same general formula:

Author. (Date). Title of document. Source.

For each source, you will need to locate the Author(s), Date of Publication, Title of the Document, and the Source (URL, publishing company, etc.).
When you find these pieces of information about your source, you can build a reference using the general formula.
Below are some reference examples for many different types of information sources.

Books

One to two authors

For a work with one or two authors, include the author(s) in every citation.

In Text

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that...

Reference entry

Cochrane, A. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. Blackwell.

Three or more authors

Include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation including the first citation.

In Text

In a recent study (Seeley et al., 2011, p. 143) concluded that…

Reference entry

Seeley, R., VanPutte, C., Regan, J., & Russo, A. (2011). Seeley’s anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill.

Several works by the same author in the same year

Arrange alphabetically by title in the Reference List. Place lowercase letters (“a”, “b”, “c”, etc.) immediately after the year.

In Text

Leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (Fullan, 1996a, 1996b) and this conference…

Reference entries

Fullan, M. (1996a). Leadership for change. In International handbook for educational leadership and administration; Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fullan, M. (1996b). The new meaning of educational change. Cassell.

eBook (includes open textbooks) with DOI or URL

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to many electronic documents.
An open textbook is a digital book with a url, cite the same as any online textbook or eBook.

In Text

We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann et al., 2004) that meant we could…

Reference entry

Niemann, S., Greenstein, D., & David, D. (2004). Helping children who are deaf: Family and community support for children who do not hear well. Berkeley: CA: Hesperian Health Guides. http://www.hesperian.org/publications_download_deaf.php

Chapter in edited book

In Text

A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards, 1997) included reference to…

Reference entry

Richards, K. C. (1997). Views on globalization. In H. L. Vivaldi (Ed.), Australia in a global world (pp. 29-43). Century.

No date of publication

In Text

Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne, n.d.) and for this reason…

Reference entry

Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. Tower Publishing.

Second or later edition

Include information about editions, volume numbers and page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.

In Text

Peters (2001, p. 6) argued that “...”

Reference entry

Peters, T. (2001). The elements of counselling (2nd ed.). Macmillan.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia

In Text

According to one definition of “bivalence" (VandenBos, 2007, p. 123) …

Reference entry

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association.

Dictionary / Encyclopedia – online

In Text

A psychological overview of ADHD (Arcus, 2001) …

Reference entry

Arcus, D. (2001). Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. Gale Group.

Journals/ Newspapers

Journal article with one or two authors

In Text

Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest  article …

Reference Entry

Kramer, E., & Bloggs, T. (2002). On quality in art and art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 40, 218-231.

Journal article with three or more authors

In Text

A recent study to investigate the effects of an organizational stress management program on employees (Elo et al., 2008) concluded that...

Reference Entry

Elo, A., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10-23.

Journal article – with a DOI

A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier assigned to articles. Include the DOI if one is provided.

In Text

A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort, 2009) discovered …

Reference Entry

Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: ‚ÄčLearning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 1162-1174. https://10.1037/a0016372

Newspaper article

In Text

The notion of a Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (Waterford, 2007).

Reference Entry

Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets it wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.

Webpages / Websites

Webpage with no author/ no date     

In Text

(Egyptian cobra, n.d.)     

Reference Entry

Egyptian cobra. (n.d.). http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Egypt/ Egyptian-Cobra---------/3252

Website Organization or Government

In Text

(American Kennel Club, 1994, para. 2)

Reference Entry

American Kennel Club. (1994, March 31). AKC meet the breeds: Labrador Retriever. http://www.akc.org/breeds

          /labrador_retriever/index.cfm

Wikipedia

Use the abbreviation para. to indicate the specific location on a webpage.

In Text

"In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River" ("Canada", n.d., para. 6).

Reference Entry

Canada. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canada&oldid=984884709

Webpage on a news website

In Text

(Bologna, 2018)    

Reference Entry

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.

          https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/entry/what-happens-mind-body-homesick_n_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

If an Artificial Intelligence tool was used in the creation of an assignment, the content it created must be cited.

In Text

(OpenAI, 2023)    

Reference Entry

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

Social Media

Facebook post   

In Text

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

Reference Entry

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Actions Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook. http://www.bit.ly/321Qstq

Facebook page  

In Text

(Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

Reference Entry

Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalzoo/

Tweet     

In Text

(White, 2018)

Reference Entry

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/bettymwhite/status/1009951892846227456

Instagram Post  

In Text

(BBC News, 2023)

Reference Entry

BBC News [@bbcnews]. (2023, May 4). Want to drop everything and live on a farm? [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Cr01MdMo8mt/?hl=en

Images

Photograph - Online (non-Creative Commons)

In Text

(McCurry, 1985)

Reference Entry

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpeg

Map

In Text

(Cable, 2013)

Reference Entry

Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. https://demographics.coopercenter.org/racial-dot-map

Art Work in a Museum or a Museum Website

In Text

(Thomson, 1915)

Reference Entry

Thomson, T. (1915). Fire-swept hills [Painting]. The Hudson's Bay Company Gallery, Toronto, ON, Canada.

PowerPoint or Lecture Notes on Learning Management System (e.g. Brightspace)

If the slides you are citing come from a classroom website or learning management system (e.g., Brightspace) and you are writing for an audience that has access to the resource, (e.g., the instructor or classmates) provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring a login).  

In Text

(Lowe, 2020)

Reference Entry

Lowe, H. (2020, October 2). The marketing plan [Video]. Brightspace. https://nscconline.brightspace.com     

Creative Commons - Clip Art or Stock Images

A Creative Commons image may indicate that the image is free to use without attribution or may require attribution. Attribution means acknowledging the use of someone else’s information or work. If attribution is required, you must provide a copyright attribution (in place of an in-text citation) and provide a reference.

 
No Attribution Required

If no attribution is required, then do not provide an APA Style reference, in-text citation, or copyright attribution.

 
Attribution Required

If attribution is required, then provide a copyright attribution in the figure note (next to the image in your assignment) and a reference in the reference list.

 
Example

The image below was located on Flickr and has a Creative Commons License, CC BY 2.0. The license states that attribution is required.

Figure 1
Lava the Sled Dog

Picture of a black and tan husky sled dog with silver eyes

Note. From Lava [Photograph], by Denali National Park and Preserve, 2013, Flickr

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/). CC BY 2.0.

Copyright Attribution (in place of an in-text citation):
  • Provide a figure number and title and then the image.
  • Below the image, provide a copyright attribution in the figure note. The copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation.
  • The copyright attribution includes title, author, date, site name, URL, followed by the Creative Commons License.
  • Note the use of APA formatting rules such as bold and italic in the example.
 
Reference Entry

Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013). Lava [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/

 

For more information on how to reference images and clip art, visit APA's Clip Art or Stock Image References.

 
Reference

APA. (2020, February). Clip art or stock image references. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/clip-art-references

Video

YouTube or Other Streaming Video

The person/group who uploaded the video is put in the author position. Include both the real name and the screen name when available.  If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets.

In Text

(Apsolon, 2011)

Reference Entry

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v+6nyGCbxD848

TED Talk Video

When located on TED's website

In Text

(Giertz, 2018)    

Reference Entry

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talk /simone_giertz_why_you_should_make_useless_things?language=en

When located on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here TED is the author) as the author.

In Text

(TED, 2012)     

Reference Entry

TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/psN1DORYYV0TV

Series Episode or Webisode

In Text

(Barris, 2017)

Reference Entry

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishbourne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

Audio

Music Album

Include an URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

In Text

(Bach, 1721/2010)     

Reference Entry

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Single Song or Track

Include an URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval.

In Text

(Beyonce, 2016)     

Reference Entry 

Beyonce. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Columbia.

Podcast

In Text

(Vedantam, 2015-present)     

Reference Entry

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. ttps://www.npr.org/podcasts/510308/hidden-brain

Government Documents

Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; italicize the title.

Include document numbers in parentheses.

Government Report by Group Author (electronic)   

In Text

(Public Health Agency of Canada, 2005)

Reference Entry

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2005). Make every mother and child count: Report on maternal and child health in Canada (Catalogue No. H -13/2005). http://www.phacaspc.gc.ca/rhs-ssg/pdf/whd_05epi_e.pdf

Government Report by Individual Author (electronic)

In Text

(Plant, 2007)

Reference Entry

Plant, P. G. (2007). Access and excellence: The campus 2020 plan for British Columbia’s postsecondary education system (Report No. C2007-960088-3). British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development. http://www.aved.gov.bc.ca/campus2020/campus2020-thinkingahead-report.pdf

Government Report by Individual Author (print)     

In Text

(Plant, 2007)     

Reference Entry

Plant, P. G. (2007). Access and excellence: The campus 2020 plan for British Columbia’s postsecondary education system (Report No. C2007-960088-3). Ministry of Advanced Education.

Statistics Canada     

In Text

(Statistics Canada, 2012)

Reference Entry

Statistics Canada. (2012). Age (131) and sex (3) for the population of Canada, provinces, territories, census divisions, census subdivisions and dissemination areas, 2011 Census. (2011 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 97-550-XWE2006002). http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/censusrecensement/2011/dp-pd/tbt-tt/Index-eng.cfm

Debates / Hansard

In Text

(British Columbia, 2011)     

Reference Entry

British Columbia, Official Report of the Debates of the Legislative Assembly (Hansard), Vol. 27, No. 8, (November 14, 2011) at 8687 (Stilwell). http://www.leg.bc.ca/hansard/39th4th/H1114am-08.pdf

Legal Documents

Statutes

Name of Act, Volume Source § section number (year).

Canadian statutes should include jurisdiction immediately after the Volume. Session or supplement, chapter, and pinpoint locations should be substituted for the section symbol (§) and section number.

Bill

Bill / Resolution Number, Legislative Session, Volume Source page (year) (enacted).

Canadian bills have official titles which should be included at the start of the citation, followed by a comma. The pinpoint location is substituted for volume, source and page number.

  • Treated as works with no author.
  • In-text citations should include the first few words of the reference followed by the year of publication.
  • Should be cited with the official or popular title of the legislation, and the year it was passed.

Example:

In Text

Bill C-26 (2005) had numerous effects on ...

Freedom of association is guaranteed under section 2(d) (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982).

Case Law

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).

In Canadian cases, the Court and Date may be located in the neutral citation. The reporter should be considered the Source. If the year of the reporter needs to be included, place it in square brackets before the volume.

(R. v. Latimer, 2001)

Software

Computer Software Examples

Example 1

In text

(Athenahealth, 2019)

Reference Entry

Athenahealth. (2019). Epocrates (Version 19.10.1) [Mobile app]. http://www.epocrates.com/

Example 2

In text

(Blub Blub, 2020)

Reference Entry

Blub Blub. (2020). Speech blubs: Language therapy (Version 2.4.3) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.blubblub.app.speechblubs

Example 3

In text

(Xero, 2019)

Reference Entry

Xero. (2019). Xero practice manager [Computer software]. https://www.xero.com/nz/features-and-tools/practice-tools/practicemanager/