libsncu. (2014, July 23). Citation: A (very) brief introduction [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/IMhMuVvXCVw
A direct quotation is "reproduc[ing] word for word material directly quoted from another author's work" (APA). A direct quote is the exact words of the original author without any changes to the text.
The following guidelines may help further your understanding of when to provide an in text citation:
Cite direct quotations that you copy from another source
Cite statistics and data
Cite pictures, illustrations and other multimedia
Cite resources located in the public domain
Cite online sources including websites, articles, blogs, listservs, discussion boards, etc.
An indirect quotation (paraphrase) is when you express an idea or concept from another author’s work in your own words. Using an indirect quote involves taking information from the original source and paraphrasing or putting it into your own words.
When you paraphrase, you must also credit the original source (APA).
The following guidelines may help you when citing indirect (paraphrase) quotations:
Cite all indirect or paraphrased quotes
Cite ideas or concepts from another author that are not your own original ideas
Common knowledge refers to information you can reasonably expect the general public to know such as widespread facts, dates or historical events. Common knowledge does not need to be cited; however, a good practice is to speak with your instructor when you are unsure if information is common knowledge.
Examples of Common Knowledge:
A year has 365 days
Canada has 10 provinces and 3 territories
Canada uses the dollar as its currency
The following are some practices that may assist you in your research experience:
Practice effective note-taking
Keep a working bibliography
Paraphrase ideas into your own words
Refer to the text to make sure you have not unintentionally copied information
Use your own voice to put a new twist on old information
When in doubt, provide full and complete references
Remember that research, writing, and citing take time
For more information on effective research practices, visit Library Services Research Guide
University of Alberta. Dean of Students (2013, December 8). Plagiarism rap: Cite your sources [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/bT6S4ERI0o8