libsncu. (2014, July 23). Citation: A (very) brief introduction [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/IMhMuVvXCVw
A direct quotation is reproducing word for word material directly quoted from another author's work. A direct quote is the exact words of the original author without any changes to the text.
The following guidelines may help further your understanding of when to provide an in text citation:
Cite direct quotations that you copy from another source
Cite statistics and data
Cite pictures, illustrations and other multimedia
Cite resources located in the public domain
Cite online sources including websites, articles, blogs, listservs, discussion boards, etc.
An indirect quotation (paraphrase) is when you express an idea or concept from another author’s work in your own words. Using an indirect quote involves taking information from the original source and paraphrasing or putting it into your own words.
When you paraphrase, you must also credit the original source.
The following guidelines may help you when citing indirect (paraphrase) quotations:
Cite all indirect or paraphrased quotes
Cite ideas or concepts from another author that are not your own original ideas
Common knowledge refers to information you can reasonably expect the general public to know such as widespread facts, dates or historical events (Caulfield & McCombes, 2022).
Common knowledge refers to information that the reader would accept without needing a citation.
Common knowledge does not need to be cited because it is widely known, undisputed, easily verified, and generally not attributable to a specific author; however, a good practice is to speak with your instructor when you are unsure if information is common knowledge.
Ask yourself the following questions:
Are you writing for a general audience or for experts in the field?
If your reader might be surprised by your statement, question its accuracy.
If you google it, can you find more than five scholarly sources that give the same information without citation?
Examples of common knowledge:
Discipline specific common knowledge is information that is so well-known within a field of study that it is considered common knowledge within this particular field..
To determine what is common knowledge can be tricky, so when in doubt, cite!
Caulfield, J. & McCombes, S. (2022, July 18). What is common knowledge? Definition and examples. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/plagiarism/common-knowledge/
The following are some practices that may assist you in your research experience:
Practice effective note-taking
Keep a working bibliography
Paraphrase ideas into your own words
Refer to the text to make sure you have not unintentionally copied information
Use your own voice to put a new twist on old information
When in doubt, provide full and complete references
Remember that research, writing, and citing take time
For more information on effective research practices, visit Library Services Research Guide.
University of Alberta. Dean of Students (2013, December 8). Plagiarism rap: Cite your sources [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/bT6S4ERI0o8